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Funmilayo Ransome Kuti, The Lioness of Lisabi

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THE geographical area called NIGERIA, arguably the most populous country in Africa has been well endowed with an array of great personalities, together with their philosophies.

Their evolution had its firm root in the pre-colonial NIGERIA. However, the global events point to one fact that the world longs for people who will stand for what they believe, even if they have to stand alone, leaders whose courage has such strong sense of purpose and security that they welcome the unknown.

FUNMILAYO Ransome Kuti was born in Abeokuta, Ogun State of Nigeria in 1900. Her maiden name was Abigael Olufunmilayo Thomas, having been born by Daniel Olumeyufa Thomas and Lucretta Omoyeni Adeosolu, was indeed, a woman with a rare courage.

She was an African feminist, Nigerian politician, a teacher and women’s right activist. Continuing, she attended Abeokuta Grammar School for her secondary education and later went to England for further studies.

The challenges which drew back our women folk usually like education, gender inequality, finance and cultural assumption which saw them as the best, only for the kitchen and the ‘other room’ are almost put behind by the activities of Funmilayo Ransome Kuti, the ‘Lioness of Lisabi’.

In the forties, after the British Colonial administration had taken measures on meeting the rights and tax policy that drastically affected the economic independence of the women in Nigeria, Funmilayo Ransome Kuti single -handedly organised tax strikes, demonstrations, and series of civilian widespred disobedience. The effect of her organized civil disturbance against arbitrary taxation rocked Egba Kingdom which was then under the firm control of the British government, to its very foundation.

This led to the temporary abdication of the Alake of Egbaland, Oba Ladapo Ademola I in 1949. Interstingly, that incident gained international attention as it was the first time a woman on the soil of colonialised Africa would organize a massive protest that almost brought the Egba Kingdom to its knee and was thereafer tagged historically as ‘Egba Women’s War/ Nigerian Women’s Struggle’. It is to her eternal credit that the first voice against the British Colonial administration on issues of tax policy which affected the economic independent of women in Nigeria sprang out.

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It is, however imperative to note that Funmilayo Ransome Kuti was one of the early modern nationalists of Nigeria who stood shoulder to shoulder with the likes of Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe, Chief Obafemi Awolowo and Sir Ahmadu Bello amongst others to fight for Nigeria’s independence abinitio. She stood and fight relentlessly against the colonial administration’s policy of racism, sexism as well as ethnicism. As an activist of no mean order, she introduced the flame of nationalism into the women folks, to the admiration of men folks too for calls for Nigerian independence. It was Funmilayo Ransome Kuti that first organized nationally a ‘Women Organization’ code named ‘Nigerian Women’s Union’ and through it, equally organised a ‘Women’s Parliament’.

With her desire to right societal wrongs, while promoting freedom and social justice, Funmilayo Ransome Kuti later joined the National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons, NCNC, the political party led by DR. Nnamdi Azikiwe and instantly became the leader of the women wing of the party. She, also doubled as the treasurer of the party in Egba division. In fact, it was on record that she was the only one who dares ZIK where others could not on issues of party conflict and organised the women folks against what she called the high-handedness of ZIK in some party matters.

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Having realized the relevance of mass political education for Nigerian women if they were to make any significant impact in the political and social economic spheres of Nigeria. Funmilayo Ransome Kuti was always in the vanguard for better education for women in the whole Federal Republic of Nigeria which was dubbed ‘The Social Welfare Club for Market Women’. The grace which gender sensitivity has achieved in all areas of governance and civil society groups sprang from her clamour for betterment for women folks in the polity. Her activities in the emancipation of womanhood as regards the political and socio-economic scenario of Nigeria cannot be quantified, even in monetary terms.

Thus, in 1947, the West African Pilot, a national newspaper dedicated to nationalism described Funmilayo Ransome Kuti as the ‘Lioness of Lisabi’ for her leadership of Egba women on a campaign against arbitrary taxation.

The rights enshrined in the Nigeria’s constitution under the clause of principles of fundamental human rights as well as specific mention of women’s rights had their union in the activities of Funmilayo Ransome Kuti. In a related development, her activism, which led to various reforms in the gender position of women folk both within Nigeria and international community was traced to the impact of her agitation against oppressive taxation for the women folks generated.

On the 20th of January, 1925, the ‘ Doyen of Female Rights’ and ‘the Mother of Africa’, Funmilayo Ransome Kuti as she was variously described, married Reverend Israel Oludotun Ransome Kuti. She was also one of the founders of Nigerian Union of Teachers five years after, 1930s to be precise as well as the Nigerian Union of Students. These two organizations in which she featured prominently were the offshoot of human rights activist in Nigeria.

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Her children included Professor Olikoye Ransome Kuti, the famous Afro beat king and philosopher, Fela Anikulapo Kuti, Dr. Beko Ransome Kuti and a daughter, Dolupo. In 1965, she was conferred with National Honour of Membership of Order of the Niger (MON), while in the same year, the University of Ibadan, UI, honoured her with honourary degree of ‘Doctor of Law’.

According to Edgar Morin, a French philosopher and sociologist, “the certainty of death and the uncertainty of the hour of death is a source of grief throughout our life”. Unfortunately, Funmilayo Ransome Kuti died in 1978 through circumstances related to injuries sustained during a clash between her son’s troupe and some members of the Nigerian Army.

The memories of Funmilayo Ransome Kuti linger in our minds long after her death.

 

 

By Idowu Ayodele

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National Issues

Abacha loot: Mai Gaskiya, can you see your world in the open? |  By Festus Adedayo

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late General Sani Abacha

Profound apologies that I chose to do a literal translation of Yoruba into English in the above headline. Can you see your world in the open is a direct translation of the Yoruba se o r’aye e l’ode? It’s deployed at a moment of extreme let-down, incomparable frustration, an intersection where a misdemeanor has absolutely ridiculed and discredited the person in question.

The heist of the late General Sani Abacha, stashed away in different countries of the world, that are coming in droves back to the country, is my subject.

This was a heist which the self-same Nigerian president, Muhammadu Buhari, had persistently denied as non-existent, literally beatifying his late benefactor, Sani Abacha, as above board.

Excluding tranches of the loot recently returned to Nigeria, the countryside’s has, in the past 18 years, recovered $4.6 billion (1.4trn) of her treasury looted by Abacha. While the United States Embassy in Nigeria recently announced the sum of $319m (N121bn) loot repatriated from the United Kingdom and France and handed back to Nigeria, this repatriated fund was different from one of about a week ago where the sum of $311 million Abacha loot from the US and the Bailiwick of Jersey were also funneled back into the country.

In a statement last week, the embassy said: “The funds returned last week are distinct and separate from an additional $167m in stolen assets also forfeited in the United Kingdom and France, as well as $152m still in active litigation in the United Kingdom.”

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At every point of the looted funds’ repatriation to Nigeria, these countries where the looted funds were earlier domiciled diplomatically but unambiguously made it known that they do not trust Nigerian leaders not to re-loot the looted funds. In fact, their trenchant shouts while returning the funds are revelatory of their disposition.

The one of February, 2020 even came with the caveat and a tripartite agreement signed by Nigeria with the US government and the Bailiwick of Jersey that upon the return of the money, it would be spent on specific infrastructure projects, to wit the Lagos-Ibadan Expressway, Second Niger Bridge and the Abuja-Kano Expressway.

 At another point, there were frenetic moves by the US and United Kingdom governments against the plan of the Nigerian government to gift Abubakar Atiku Bagudu, Kebbi State governor, who was alleged to be an enabler and accomplice of the laundered money, the sum of $110 million out of the recovered funds.

Recently too, a warning came from the United States Justice Department that, should Nigeria fail to spend the repatriated funds on the agreed public projects, she would refund the money.

I don’t know if you know that these veiled threats didn’t come without an underlining perception or intelligence reports about our government’s disposition to public funds in its care. Nigerian governments, the so-called Mai Gaskiya’s inclusive, are known to the globe to be rapaciously corrupt, adding to this corruption medal another medallion of shamelessness. The way the globe polices monies that are Nigeria’s but stolen by a Nigerian despot of incomparable filching mentality, is embarrassingly unprecedented. Can Mai Gaskiya see his world in the open is the most fitting epithet to describe this shamelessness

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COVID-19: Time to go Madagascar | By Festus Adedayo

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Like many other societies in the world, Africa boasts of a past that is ambivalent, a mixture of the good, the bad and the ugly. She had villains, despots, tyrants, developmental leaders and all sorts as rulers. As she had a ruthless hero in leader of the Zulu Kingdom, Shaka kaSenzangakhona, better known as Shaka the Zulu, who reigned from 1816 to 1828, so also did Africa have 16th century notorious Basorun Gaa of the old Oyo Empire Army (Oyo Ile).

 

In modern time, Africa had Ugandan Joseph Rao Kony, leader of the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), a Ugandan guerilla group. Kony was queer and weird. He proclaimed to the world that he was the spokesperson of God on earth and the spirit medium through which He could be reached. He also claimed that he was always host to thirteen multinational spirits that included a Chinese phantom.

 

He led a syncretic mix that included the usage of Christian fundamentalism, mysticism, Acholi nationalism and claimed that he was establishing a theocratic state, based on the Ten Commandments. He was subsequently indicted by the International Criminal Court (ICC) in The Hague for the abduction of 66,000 children who were turned into child soldiers, as well as sex slaves and causing the internal displacement of two million people from 1986 to 2009.

 

This is not to talk of the Alaafin of old Oyo who ordered the head of his father-in-law brought on a platter because, while helping to scrub his back in the bathroom, his new wife had jokingly teased his limp manhood thus: “Kabiyesi, so you are this small, yet the whole world is afraid of you!”

 

Pre-colonial Africa was equally very rich. Egyptian civilization, for instance, has been held to be a major gladsome past of Africa, even from prehistoric times. Agricultural irrigation method that flourished in the deployment of the Nile for agricultural purposes, as well as Egyptian architecture are major sources of study in strides of prehistory. This is not to talk of Egyptian science of embalmment.

 

This method gained wide mention in its unique system of preserving the dead called mummification so as to achieve some measure of immortality, even in death. Deploying herbs and locally sourced chemicals, Egyptian native doctors dispossessed dead bodies of all moisture, leaving dried flesh that could not decay. With this, many Pharaohs were preserved for centuries and archaeologists claim to have excavated centuries-old bodies preserved with leaves and still effusing scents of embalmment.

 

On a visit to the Alaafin of Oyo, Oba Lamidi Adeyemi, some years ago, he told me of two scientific strides bequeathed by his forefathers. One was that of a fascinating palace environmental science wizardry. According to the Alaafin, no matter how heavy a downpour was in the palace, within a few minutes, you can never find its trace in the palace.

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There is an inscrutable and undecipherable flood control network in the palace which ensures that it can never be flooded. The palace is centuries old. The second, as told me by the Alaafin, is an African DNA system in the palace which enables an Alaafin to identify whether children born to the palace were genuinely of the monarchy. The third, as related by the revered monarch, is a potent local cure for cancer of the prostrate. The Alaafin told me that if local traditional doctors treat such a patient of prostrate, he will, in Alaafin’s words, “die with prostrate but never of it.”

 

There is no doubt that African medicine was potent and was efficient for centuries in treating sicknesses like cancer, diabetes, malaria, stroke, epilepsy, benign prostatic herperplasia, gout and all manner of ailments. Traditional African medicine involves indigenous herbalism that is many times mixed with African spirituality.

 

Its own doctors were known as diviners, herbalists and midwives. They are reputed to have cured complex ailments, even psychiatric disorders. I was a living witness to a then three-year old boy who was, seventeen years ago, treated for asthma. The local traditional doctor never came in contact with his patient. He merely asked for the presentation of this ailment which had taken the child’s parents to different orthodox hospitals without any remedy, handed them two bottles of herbal potion and in the last seventeen years, the parents have reported no manifestation of the sickness. To the best of my knowledge, Western medicine has no cure yet for asthma.

 

The recent altercation over the claimed remedy to the raging COVID-19 pandemic by the government of Madagascar was what propelled the above narratives. Madagascar, which is officially known as the Republic of Madagascar, but which before now was known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island.

 

A country in the Indian Ocean, Madagascar is said to be approximately 400 kilometres off the coast of East Africa. It is reputed to be the world’s second largest island country. As is known with all island countries, the desire for survival usually forces them to take initiatives about their existence.

 

So when Madagascar was said to have thought out of the box, not tying its fate to the fate of a world that is hopelessly bayoneted by a tiny microscopic virus which had to date killed over 200,000 people, to those who know the initiative-driven existence of island countries, they weren’t taken aback by the Madagascar innovation.

 

When the country launched Covid-Organics (CVO) which is reportedly effective in the treatment of this strange disease, it naturally raised some dusts, especially from the World Health Organization (WHO). Since the virus cast a spell on the world, killing global compatriots like chickens, Madagascar is yet to record any death, even when it had 193 cases.

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This stride has confounded the world, especially many African countries who are said to be seeking Madagascar’s intervention. Explaining how the country got to this ennobling cusp, Marcel Razanamparany, who is the President of the Academy of Medicine in Uganda, said it was an initiative of the work of Malagasy Institute of Applied Research (IMRA) researchers, who he said had conducted clinical study into herbs in the quest for a connect between modern and traditional medicine.

 

In the process of seeking cure for the coronavirus, Madagascar was reported to have made use of its biodiversity by embarking on a therapy protocol that uses an admixture of chloroquine and the antibiotic azithromycin, as well as deployment of medicinal plants. IMRA and the National Pharmacology Research Centre of Madagascar were said to have depended heavily on the usage of artemisia plants hitherto renowned for the cure of malaria.

 

Indeed, Madagascar, since 1975, was said to have begun researches into the potency of this artemisia annua, a research said to have been pioneered by a Professor Albert Rakoto Ratsimamanga. The result is that today, even when WHO is ululating over this splendid outcome, the world is giving thumbs up to Madagascar and the country is able to rescue her citizens from the pangs of coronavirus. Since then, the road to Madagascar has become the path to tread.

 

Madagascar has since introduced the native-brewed but effective medicine it christened COVID Organics to Guinea Conakry, Equatorial Guinea and Guinea-Bissau, with Tanzania about to place its order. Nigeria’s Secretary to the Government of the Federation (SGF) has also indicated that Nigeria might also follow suit.

WHO’s reaction to the Madagascar road that has become the path to tread, was predictable. In a statement, it warned against the use of traditional herbs by African governments, saying that as “efforts are underway to find treatment for COVID-19, caution must be taken against misinformation, especially on social media, about the effectiveness of certain remedies.”

 

No one should need to tell Africans that even though colonialism ended some decades ago, neocolonialism is still ravaging Africa. While it is true, as propounded by Italian Antonio Gramsci, that physical coercion as a system of control of man had died a natural death, control of the mind of the African has hugely deputized for physical force. And because African leaders are a bunch of simpletons who have no minds of their own, they are easy recruits into the war to enslave the minds of their people.

 

Their poverty of materials and lack of the mind have ensured that they are appendages to the west. In spite of his penchant for thieving the resources of his people, Sani Abacha was about the only Nigerian leader who called the bluff of the west and who can be compared to Andry Nirina Rajoelina, current Madagascar president. The ones before and after him appear to be mere agents of the colonizers.

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If not, a government that has a mind of its own shouldn’t be deterred by the threats of the west, especially in the quest to rescue its own people from the pangs of a global pandemic. It is apparent that finding cure to a global ailment by any common African country is an effrontery, indeed insolence by Africa against her masters. How could those black niggers who cannot fend for themselves without the help of their white slavers, be the ones to find medical rescue to the problems of the world and end a superior white race’s medical agony?

 

That would surely be racial impudence. To worsen matters, what that also means is that shipment of cash from all the nooks and crannies of a world that is in search of stoppage to this colossal death, would go to Africa. Absolutely nauseating!

 

If the Nigerian government encourages traditional medicine practitioners and departments of botany of different universities to find cure to COVID-19, I am sure remedies could be found to this fiery disease and we would jump up in the estimation of the world. Yes, traditional medicine practice has been infiltrated by mediocrities, charlatans and fraudsters, but there is still a tiny window inhabited by genuine traditional practitioners. Gladsome is the news that the Federal Government, through the Permanent Secretary in the Ministry of Health, Mashi Abdullahi, has directed the National Agency for Foods Drugs Administration and Control (NAFDAC) to carry out necessary procedures to assess plant-based cough mixture as a possible treatment for COVID-19.

 

Government should go a notch higher. All efforts must be made for Nigeria to follow this laudable road to Madagascar. It is a road that leads to self-sufficiency and homegrown solutions to continental and international malaises.

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COVID -19: Time to diversify Ngeria’s economy | By Abba Dukawa

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Following the collapse of crude oil prices from 2014 to date , which triggered unpleasant memories to  Nigerian government which  found itself in unchartered waters. Since then Nigeria continues to struggle to revive the economy amidst dwindling oil revenues compounded by unemployment, poverty and insecurity all due to over dependant on one major government revenue, the country   remains weak and fragile -being outstripped by population growth.

 

Who is to be blamed for this mess ?   Provocative policy of the Nigerian government is the dependence on oil resources as a source of foreign exchange earnings to the detriment of agriculture despite the fact that the country is blessed with untapped  mineral resources. With  outbreak of the coronavirus, which has puts global economy in uncertainty again, Nigeria’s economy is being caught in the cross-hairs.

 

Nigeria the so called  Africa’s largest economy cannot currently fund its budget due to Covid – 19 because the budget passed with a benchmark oil price of $57 per barrel—nearly double its current price of around  $28, knowing fully well that the government relies heavily on petrodollars. It is now unarguably, the collapse of oil prices not only pose a strategic danger to the global economy but it has been danger to Nigeria’s economy development and also a  catalyst behind national  domestic predicaments.

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Absolutely there is lack of foresight from our leaders for not  save as much as possible especially when the crude oil price reached its peak but Nigeria Forex reserve is about  $37billion and can finance 4months of imports max.  Even  before Covid -19 pandemic Saudi threw OPEC members under the bus because Russia refuses to cut production to prop price up.

 

Saudi flooded the market and offered discount to buyers. Russia refused production costs because it thinks; cuts empower Shale producers in America. Now Nigeria have about more than 50cargoes of oil floating on international waters without buyers. A cargo contains about 2 million barrels of oil.

 

Now Nigeria is facing severe  challenges. Oil price volatility is accentuated by rising commodity prices, possibly  the devaluation of the naira against the U.S. dollar. It s time for economy diversification.

 

Regards to diversification of the economy there is need for Federal government to develop the country untapped minerals.   Despite this huge opportunity still   domestic mining industry is underdeveloped, leading to Nigeria having to import minerals that it could produced domestically. With recent economy woes  federal government should, as a matter of fact shift from mono economic policy to ensure that non-oil sector growth has  translated to improvements in government revenue.

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Had it  been that past and present  leadership prioritise other non oil sectors with the way the nation’s telecommunications sector liberalize definetly the country economy will improve because  there is no state in Nigeria with less than 10 untapped different  mineral resources.

 

Had it been that they did the needful for long the country will set itself free unless federal government  develop the country untapped mineral  industry, modernise the agricultural sector and  develop the tourism industry. Just from  iron ore , expert says Federal Government can make $280 billion from the mineral annually more than what the country earned from crude oil.

 

According to 2018 report of geology and mineral resources of Nigeria  estimated Nigeria’s iron ore deposit to reach three billion tonnes, coal, three billion tonnes while lead and zinc are to reach 10 million tonnes each. Federal Government can make a lot of money from mining, if it is exploited and  invest into   coal, gold, tantalite, and cassiterite to shore up revenue.

 

 

 

Dukawa, a public affairs analyst, writes from Kano

 

 

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